The principle whereby health insurance benefits must be effective, appropriate and economic is enshrined in the Federal Law on Health Insurance. The three criteria are cumulative (Article 32 LAMal/KVG).
Manipulation of the back and limbs with the aim to restore mobility to joints and to free tensions.
Under the optional daily allowance insurance, insurers may apply an exclusion on illnesses existing upon admission, by means of a reserve clause. Coverage may also be excluded for illnesses which the insured suffered before joining the insurance, if experience shows that relapses are possible. Exclusions shall lapse at the latest after five years. Before the end of that period, the insured may provide evidence that the exclusion is no longer justified. The exclusion is valid only if it is notified in writing to the insured, specifying the beginning and end of validity, as well as the illness concerned (LAMal/KVG, Art. 69).